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Lesson Plan: Predictions With Conservation of Energy

by Nalin A. Ratnayake

Unit: Work and Energy, Component 2: Conservation of Energy
Date: January 15th, 2013
Day/Block: Day 4, Blocks A(3) / E(2) / F(6)
Time Available: E 58 min, A 58 min, F 65 min

Objective: You will be able to predict and analyze motion using the Law of Conservation of Energy.

Criteria for Success:

1. Can I predict the final mechanical energy of an object in motion using energy conservation?
2. Can I determine if and how an object’s mechanical energy has changed?
3. Can I solve a physics problem using energy conservation?

Assessment: Handout and Exit Ticket
The handout will show qualitative understanding of Criteria for Success 1 and 2.
The short worksheet will show quantitative understanding of the Criterion for Success 3.

[10 min] Do Now

Please have a seat and work quietly on the Do Now.

A ball of mass 15.5 kg is released from rest at a point 1.2 m high.

1. If we ignore air resistance, what will be the velocity of the ball at the lowest point of motion?

2. If we assume that air resistance does -20 J of work on the ball as it falls, what will be the velocity at the lowest point of motion?

Share out. Specific questions to ask students: Can you step me through how you found the velocity? How do you know much initial mechanical energy the ball has? How do you know that the total mechanical energy will remain constant? Where does the kinetic energy of the ball come from?  What does the work done by friction do to the mechanical energy of the ball?

[2 min] Framing the Day

The scenario we will be looking at today will be very similar to the Do Now… only more dangerous!

Objective: You will be able to predict and analyze motion using the Law of Conservation of Energy.

Criteria for Success:

1. Can I predict what will happen to the mechanical energy of an object by using energy conservation?
2. Can I determine if and how an object’s mechanical energy has changed?
3. Can I solve a physics problem about the motion of an object using energy conservation?

Can someone please raise his or her hand and explain what we are doing today?
Can someone please raise his or her hand and remind us how we will know if we are successful today?

[35 min] Will Professor Lewin Survive?

Note: The following activity will be outlined on a handout / graphic organizer.

We are handing out a worksheet. These will be collected today at the end of the period. Please take a couple of minutes to read the first two sections, labeled “Video” and “Directions”.

VIDEO
Professor Walter Lewin is going to put his life on the line to prove the law of the conservation of energy. He will release a 15.5 kg pendulum bob from his chin, and wait to see what happens when the ball swings back at his face! Will the ball smash his face in? Or will the laws of physics protect him? We will find out….
Can someone please raise their hand to volunteer to read the first paragraph for us?

Directions

• We will be watching a video that goes along with this handout. Do not move ahead. Some questions we will do as a class, some as a table, and others individually.
• Write your answers in complete sentences wherever possible. This helps organize your thinking and gives you better study materials later for quizzes and tests.

Can someone please raise their hand and tell us, what is one direction we should follow today? Why should we do that?
Can someone please raise their hand and tell us, what is another direction we should follow today? Why should we do that?

Play the video of Walter Lewin putting his life on the line to prove Conservation of Energy.

Stop the video at 2:54.  (Right after “…this will be my last lecture.”)

PREDICTIONS

1. What kind(s) of mechanical energy does the ball have right now and how do you know?
Quick share, check for agreement or disagreement and why.

Take a couple of minutes to work with your table group on the first column of the table (question 2).
After each column, ask a student to share out what their group answered. Questions to ask: Why do you think that the mechanical energy will increase/decrease? Why will this make the height higher/lower? What does positive/negative work do to the mechanical energy of the pendulum? How will we know if the mechanical energy is higher/lower?

Repeat for questions 3 and 4.

 2. Prof. Lewin does not push the ball and we assume no air resistance 3. Prof. Lewin does not push the ball but we include air resistance 4. Prof. Lewin accidentally pushes the ball as he lets go What kind of work will be done on the ball (positive / negative / none)? What will happen to the total mechanical energy of the ball (increase / decrease / constant)? What will be the height of the ball when it swings back to Prof. Lewin (higher / lower / same)? Will Professor Lewin be safe (yes / no)?

Add this diagram to the slide to be clear about what I mean by “height”:

5. Make your prediction: What will happen to the mechanical energy of the ball? How will you know if your prediction is right or wrong?

Play the rest of the video.

Show a side by side of the before (at the time of release) and after (1 cycle):

I was careful to stop the video exactly when the ball reached its maximum height on the return swing. Is he at the same position or not? What do you notice about the ball’s position?

At this point there should be at least 20 min remaining in the period.

ANALYSIS
6. What happened to the mechanical energy of the ball, and how do you know?  What evidence tells you so?

DISCUSSION
Possible questions:What happened to the mechanical energy of the ball, and what evidence do you have? Was there work done on the ball? If so, by what force and was it positive or negative work? How can we explain what happened using the Law of Conservation of Energy? As students answer, ask for agreement or disagreement and why.

CONFER
In a couple of minutes, I’m going to ask you to answer question 7 individually. But before we do that. you have 2 minutes to check with your partner and make sure you agree on what happened. This is your only chance to confer before answering question 7 on your own.

7. Write out a short story of what happened to Prof. Lewin’s swinging pendulum. You must answer the following questions in your story: Was work done on the ball and by what force?  What did this work do to the mechanical energy of the ball? What did we observe that told us what happened to the mechanical energy of the ball?

[5 min] Exit Ticket

Professor Lewin released a 15.5 kg pendulum from 1.20 m high. We carefully measure the height of the ball when it swings back towards him, and determine that the ball only went 1.05 m high when it came back. How much work was done by air resistance on the ball?

Collect student work. If running out of time, ask co resident to help photograph worksheets and exit tickets of case study students as a worst case fallback option.

52 min total:  ~5 min of buffer
If need be, the CONFER section of the plan can be eliminated without impact to the cognitive demand or student sense-making in the lesson.

Lesson Plan: Conservation of Energy using a Music Video

Lesson 2.2: Exploring Conservation of Energy

Unit: Work and Energy, Component 2 – Conservation of Energy
Date: January 10th, 2013
Day/Block: Day 1 –  A/E/F
Time Available: A 58min / E 48min / F 65min

Objective:
You will be able to design and analyze a Rube Goldberg Machine using the Law of Conservation of Energy.

Criteria for Success:
Can I design my own machine that transfers mechanical energy between objects through work?

Can I use the Law of Conservation of Energy to explain how my design transfers energy?

Assessment:
Handout with machine design and analysis questions.

Agenda:

[10 min] DoNow:

The complicated chain of events in the music video is called a “Rube Goldberg Machine”. These machines use many transfers of energy between a whole lot of objects in order to do a very simple task.

Invent your own small (2 objects) Rube Goldberg machine. How would you use one object to make another object do something else? Where is there work and energy? How does one object transfer energy to another?

Example:

[10 min] Discussion: Music Video

Show OK Go’s music video for “This Too Shall Pass”: (4 min)

Note: Watching the video was assigned as homework the previous night, along with the following guided questions: Where do you see work? Where do you see energy being transferred from one form to another? Write down at least 1 example (note the video time), and make sure to explain what object is doing work on what other object, what kind of energy is being transferred, and how you know.

Talk to a partner next to you and share 1 example of work and energy being transferred from one object to another. I will ask several students to share an observation that their partner noticed, and explain to me what object is having work done on it and what kinds of energy are involved.

What did you see? Be specific, tell me what happened to the object that makes you think there was work done. What kinds of energy do you think that the object has?  How do you know that the object has that kind of energy?

Record student observations on the whiteboard.

[15 min] In-Depth Analysis: Tire

Show video clip of the tire section twice (7 second clip starting at 1:03). Ask students to write down exactly what they see happening to the tire. Have students share their observations, and assemble a record of the tire’s journey on the board to refer to later.  (Make sure that the bucket hitting the tire is included.)  Hand out the worksheet for scaffolded analysis of the tire scenario.

Refer to your handout. Take 30 seconds to answer the first question by yourself. Ask one student to share what they wrote with the class.
1. At the beginning of the scenario, does the tire already have mechanical energy? If so, what form(s) is it in, and how do you know?

Take two minutes to answer questions 2 and 3 with a partner.  Ask one or two pairs to share, depending on time.
2. During the scenario, is work done on the tire by any other object?  Is this work positive or negative, and how do you know?
3. What happens to the tire’s total mechanical energy when the work is done to it?

Take four minutes to answer questions 4 and 5 with a partner. Ask one or two pairs to share, depending on time.
4. Describe what happens to the tire’s GPE, KE, and total ME as it goes through the scenario.
5.  What happens to the tire’s mechanical energy at the end of the scenario?

[15 min] Creative Activity: Design and Analyze

Turn over your handout. Now you have a chance to design your own Rube Goldberg machine! Draw your machine in the space provided, and use the Tire Analysis as a guide to answer the analysis questions below. The questions are due tomorrow for stamps. If you don’t finish in class, please complete the analysis questions as homework.

6. Draw your own piece of this Rube Goldberg Machine that uses 1 object. You must include at least 1 transfer of energy from one object to another.

7. What is your main object in this scenario? :

8. Describe what happens to your object’s GPE, KE, and total ME as it goes through the scenario beginning to end..

9. Where is work done on your object or by your object? How does this work change your object’s total mechanical energy?

10. Explain how your machine obeys the Law of Conservation of Energy, MEi + W = MEf.